Nuclear fuel cycle modeling generality discrete event system simulation 3rd edition pdf free download robustness are improved by a modular, agent based modeling framework. Discrete material and facility tracking rather than fleet-based modeling improve nuclear fuel cycle simulation fidelity. A free, open source paradigm encourages technical experts to contribute software to the Cyclus modeling ecosystem.
The flexibility of the Cyclus tool from the simulator user perspective is demonstrated with both open and closed fuel cycle examples. As nuclear power expands, technical, economic, political, and environmental analyses of nuclear fuel cycles by simulators increase in importance. To date, however, current tools are often fleet-based rather than discrete and restrictively licensed rather than open source. Each of these choices presents a challenge to modeling fidelity, generality, efficiency, robustness, and scientific transparency. Additionally, the implementation of each is discussed in the context of motivating challenges in nuclear fuel cycle simulation. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Screen reader users, click the load entire article button to bypass dynamically loaded article content.
Please note that Internet Explorer version 8. Click the View full text link to bypass dynamically loaded article content. Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth are among the most important metallurgical heat treatment processes to soften cold worked metals and design desired microstructures and textures. Specifically the reduction in grain size can be efficiently achieved by recrystallization. While plastic cold working increases the stored energy of metals, mainly through dislocation accumulation, recovery and specifically recrystallization lead to it reduction.
While recovery describes the gradual re-ordering and annihilation of the stored dislocations, primary recrystallization proceeds discontinuously by the formation and motion of high angle grain boundaries which discontinuously sweep the deformation substructure. Grain growth describes the process of competitive capillary driven coarsening of the average grain size. This chapter reviews the main mechanisms, lattice defects, and driving forces associated with recovery, recrystallization and grain growth and provides an introduction to the simulation of these phenomena. Dierk Raabe holds a Ph. Currently he is Chief Executive of the Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung in Düsseldorf and Professor at RWTH Aachen. His focus is in physical metallurgy and materials physics.
Specifically he works on the simulation and mechanical properties of metallic alloys. He received the Leibniz-Award and an ERC advanced grant. He is a member of the Science Advisory Board of the German Government and chairs the Governors Board of RWTH Aachen University. He is a member of the National Academy Leopoldina.
This article has not been cited. This article is about the field of science. The stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for later astronomy. Ibn al-Haytham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory.
Using dissections and the knowledge of previous scholars, he was able to begin to explain how light enters the eye. He asserted that the light ray is focused, but the actual explanation of how light projected to the back of the eye had to wait until 1604. East and the West, for more than 600 years. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haytham’s Optics ranks alongside that of Newton’s work of the same title, published 700 years later. From it, later European scholars were able to build devices that replicated those Ibn al-Haytham had built, and understand the way light works.